Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2020-03-18 23:25:53 UTC
Updated at2020-12-07 19:07:08 UTC
CannabisDB IDCDB000130
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Cannabis Compound Identification
Common NameL-Glutamic acid
DescriptionL-glutamic acid (abbreviated Glu or E), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is a non-essential amino acid, one of the 20 amino acids used in the biosynthesis of proteins. L-glutamic acid exists in all living species, from bacteria to humans. In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, which serves as metabolic fuel or other functional roles in the body. Glutamate is a component amino acid in many protein rich foods including the gluten protein in flour and is found as a free acid in cheeses and soya sauce. It is used as a flavor enhancer as a sodium salt known as monosodium glutamate. As a proteinogenic amino acid, L-glutamic acid is also found in Cannabis plants (PMID: 6991645 ). Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism. Glutamate is the most abundant fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the pre-synaptic cell. In the opposing post-synaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate acid (NMDA) receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, it is believed that glutamic acid is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. Glutamate transporters are found in neuronal and glial membranes. They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space. In brain injury or disease, glutamate can accumulate outside cells, causing glutamate excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity occurs when neurons are exposed to high levels of glutamate or other neurotransmitters, causing persistent activation of the and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels. This results in a lethal influx of extracellular calcium leading to neuronal damage and eventual cell death. Cell death arises from damage to mitochondria by the excessively high intracellular calcium, which open mitochondrial pores, causing mitochondria to swell. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may also be released by mitochondria into the intracellular space. Excess glutamate and calcium trigger apoptosis by further activating transcription factors for pro-apoptotic genes, or downregulating transcription factors for anti-apoptotic genes. Glutamate excitotoxicity causes other health consequences. In ischemic stroke and brain trauma, the severely reduced blood supply leads to flooding of glutamate and aspartate into the extra-neuronal space ( PMID: 16314180 ). Glutamate excitotoxicity is associated with diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease (PMID: 20229265 ) and in epileptic seizures. Microinjection of glutamic acid into neurons produces spontaneous depolarization around one second apart which is like a paroxysmal depolarizing shift seen in epileptic attacks. This change in the resting membrane potential at seizure foci could cause spontaneous opening of voltage activated calcium channels, leading to glutamic acid release and further depolarization. Moreover, glutamic acid is associated with N-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidChEBI
(S)-Glutamic acidChEBI
Acide glutamiqueChEBI
Acido glutamicoChEBI
Acidum glutamicumChEBI
EChEBI
GluChEBI
GlutamateChEBI
GLUTAMIC ACIDChEBI
L-GluChEBI
L-Glutaminic acidChEBI
L-GlutaminsaeureChEBI
(S)-2-AminopentanedioateGenerator
(S)-GlutamateGenerator
L-GlutaminateGenerator
L-GlutamateGenerator
(2S)-2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
(S)-(+)-GlutamateHMDB
(S)-(+)-Glutamic acidHMDB
1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylateHMDB
1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylateHMDB
1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
2-AminoglutarateHMDB
2-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
a-AminoglutarateHMDB
a-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
a-GlutamateHMDB
a-Glutamic acidHMDB
AciglutHMDB
alpha-AminoglutarateHMDB
alpha-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
alpha-GlutamateHMDB
alpha-Glutamic acidHMDB
AminoglutarateHMDB
Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
GltHMDB
GlusateHMDB
GlutHMDB
GlutacidHMDB
GlutamicolHMDB
GlutamidexHMDB
GlutaminateHMDB
Glutaminic acidHMDB
GlutaminolHMDB
GlutatonHMDB
L-(+)-GlutamateHMDB
L-(+)-Glutamic acidHMDB
L-a-AminoglutarateHMDB
L-a-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
L-alpha-AminoglutarateHMDB
L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
D GlutamateHMDB
Glutamate, potassiumHMDB
Glutamic acid, (D)-isomerHMDB
L Glutamic acidHMDB
D-GlutamateHMDB
L GlutamateHMDB
Aluminum L glutamateHMDB
Aluminum L-glutamateHMDB
L-Glutamate, aluminumHMDB
Potassium glutamateHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucoseHMDB
D-GlcNAcHMDB
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamineHMDB
N-AcetylchitosamineHMDB
N Acetyl D glucosamineHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxy D glucoseHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxyglucoseHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxyglucoseHMDB
AcetylglucosamineHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
N-[(3alpha,5beta,7alpha,12alpha)-3,7,12-Trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
N-CholoylglycineHMDB
3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
N-[(3a,5b,7a,12a)-3,7,12-Trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
N-[(3Α,5β,7α,12α)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
GlycocholateHMDB
Glycine cholateHMDB
Glycocholic acid, sodium saltHMDB
CholylglycineHMDB
Glycocholate sodiumHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholanic acid-24-glycineHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5beta-cholan-24-amideHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid-24-glycineHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5β-cholan-24-amideHMDB
Glycoreductodehydrocholic acidHMDB
GlycylcholateHMDB
Glycylcholic acidHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-amideHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amideHMDB
N-Choloyl-glycineHMDB
3-Hydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-17-oneHMDB
Follicular hormoneHMDB
FolliculinHMDB
OestroneHMDB
(+)-EstroneHMDB
1,3,5(10)-Estratrien-3-ol-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxy-17-keto-estra-1,3,5-trieneHMDB
3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-triene-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxyoestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-oneHMDB
D1,3,5(10)-Estratrien-3-ol-17-oneHMDB
Estrone, (+-)-isomerHMDB
Hyrex brand OF estroneHMDB
Estrone, (9 beta)-isomerHMDB
EstrovarinHMDB
KestroneHMDB
WehgenHMDB
Estrone, (8 alpha)-isomerHMDB
Hauck brand OF estroneHMDB
UnigenHMDB
Vortech brand OF estroneHMDB
alpha,beta-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
D-GroAHMDB
R-Glyceric acidHMDB
GlycerateHMDB
(R)-GlycerateHMDB
a,b-HydroxypropionateHMDB
a,b-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
alpha,beta-HydroxypropionateHMDB
Α,β-hydroxypropionateHMDB
Α,β-hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
R-GlycerateHMDB
(R)-Glyceric acidHMDB
D-GlycerateHMDB
D-Glyceric acidHMDB
(2R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
(R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
D-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
1-Amino-2-hydroxyethaneHMDB
2-Amino-1-ethanolHMDB
2-Amino-ethanolHMDB
2-Aminoethan-1-olHMDB
2-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
2-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
AethanolaminHMDB
AminoethanolHMDB
beta-AminoethanolHMDB
beta-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
beta-EthanolamineHMDB
beta-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
ColamineHMDB
ETAHMDB
GlycinolHMDB
HeaHMDB
MEAHMDB
MONOETHANOLAMINEHMDB
b-AminoethanolHMDB
Β-aminoethanolHMDB
b-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
Β-aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
b-EthanolamineHMDB
Β-ethanolamineHMDB
b-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
Β-hydroxyethylamineHMDB
2-AminoethanolHMDB
2-EthanolamineHMDB
2-HydroxyethanamineHMDB
Envision conditioner PDD 9020HMDB
EthylolamineHMDB
H-GlycinolHMDB
MonoaethanolaminHMDB
OlamineHMDB
2 AminoethanolHMDB
(3R,4S,5R)-5-[(1R)-1-Carboxy-2,2-difluoro-1-(phosphonooxy)ethoxy]-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-Β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-Β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight147.13
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight147.0532
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional NameL-glutamic acid
CAS Registry Number56-86-0
SMILES
N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI KeyWHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. Glutamic acid and derivatives are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGlutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glutamic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.57 mg/mLNot Available
logP-3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.32 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, 3 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223Spectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94dSpectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, 3 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139Spectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169Spectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, 3 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968Spectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0790000000-79d3e289c22cb183faa1Spectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223Spectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94dSpectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00ea-6932100000-30d3f5dcc198a5971e96Spectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139Spectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169Spectrum
GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0znc-9300000000-f88e86b78a4cee99a2d4Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSL-Glutamic acid, 2 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-8290000000-f99e03763f636e557887Spectrum
MS/MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-6900000000-95b0a084dc076f9c7b91Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-c37d4c80a14ec029ef63Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-6f1888aa71bcb0adf76cSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004j-0900000000-5fa8a338dcd2f2a6bdd2Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-16763200aa07f7629ad4Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-3900000000-d9cfc5187aa799f6f978Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-10ee9a593e13550bec1cSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-4d045a3c1fc6e56f801bSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c3c7f8f3754109a0c25bSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-48bfae26c69408b7f0aeSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-82c2a681e7522a7bb1d1Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0905010000-af1c9ec4d0062fa6960eSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-01q9-9700000000-2b967b896a6e48914512Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-1434321646181ea894a0Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-11fadb2530828eedad8aSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0941100000-07d051890cb1d9e5c856Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9200000000-f8619d11f1f54d836bb1Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-ea2dd00e79ef06e8dc04Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-3e239d4014c95a2ef873Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-b548959edce39d319cf4Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-40d901f655797db2cd0fSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-f997527a39900ac431c7Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-7900000000-60816f0601a4e6d25ffbSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0007-9000000000-6ee821f657c604d1afcaSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-000t-0900000000-7c02624abe56da9247a2Spectrum
NMR
TypeDescriptionView
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
Pathways
Pathways
Protein Targets
Enzymes
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialALDH4A11p36P30038 details
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrialGSR8p21.1P00390 details
Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing] 2GFPT25q34-q35O94808 details
Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing] 1GFPT12p13Q06210 details
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrialABAT16p13.2P80404 details
Tyrosine aminotransferaseTAT16q22.1P17735 details
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmicGOT110q24.1-q25.1P17174 details
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrialGOT216q21P00505 details
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicBCAT112p12.1P54687 details
AmidophosphoribosyltransferasePPAT4q12Q06203 details
Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrialAADAT4q33Q8N5Z0 details
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrialAGXT25p13Q9BYV1 details
Ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrialOAT10q26P04181 details
Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1CCBL19q34.11Q16773 details
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunitGCLC6p12P48506 details
Glutamate--cysteine ligase regulatory subunitGCLM1p22.1P48507 details
N-acetylglutamate synthase, mitochondrialNAGS17q21.31Q8N159 details
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrialBCAT219q13O15382 details
Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligaseEPRS1q41P07814 details
Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]ASNS7q21.3P08243 details
GMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]GMPS3q24P49915 details
Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrialGLUD2Xq24-q25P49448 details
Glutamine synthetaseGLUL1q31P15104 details
Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrialGLS212q13Q9UI32 details
CTP synthase 1CTPS11p34.1P17812 details
Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrialGLS2q32-q34O94925 details
Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminaseFTCD21q22.3O95954 details
Glutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrialGLUD110q23.3P00367 details
Glutamate decarboxylase 2GAD210p11.23Q05329 details
Glutamate decarboxylase 1GAD12q31Q99259 details
Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1GGT122q11.23P19440 details
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 7GGT720q11.22Q9UJ14 details
Serine--pyruvate aminotransferaseAGXT2q37.3P21549 details
Glutathione synthetaseGSS20q11.2P48637 details
Folylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrialFPGS9q34.1Q05932 details
Alanine aminotransferase 1GPT8q24.3P24298 details
Phosphoserine aminotransferasePSAT19q21.2Q9Y617 details
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrialAASS7q31.3Q9UDR5 details
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthasePFAS17p13.1O15067 details
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthaseALDH18A110q24.3P54886 details
5-oxoprolinaseOPLAH8q24.3O14841 details
Vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylaseGGCX2p12P38435 details
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 1GRIK121q22.11P39086 details
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 3GRIK31p34-p33Q13003 details
Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit B, mitochondrialPET1124q31.3O75879 details
Glutamate carboxypeptidase 2FOLH111p11.2Q04609 details
Arginine decarboxylaseADC1p35.1Q96A70 details
Glutamate receptor 1GRIA15q33|5q31.1P42261 details
Aminoadipate aminotransferase, isoform CRA_bAADAT4q33Q4W5N8 details
Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 2SLC25A1822q11.2Q9H1K4 details
Glutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetaseNADSYN111q13.4Q6IA69 details
Alanine aminotransferase 2GPT216q12.1Q8TD30 details
LengsinLGSN6pter-q22.33Q5TDP6 details
CTP synthase 2CTPS2Xp22Q9NRF8 details
Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1SLC25A2211p15.5Q9H936 details
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 6GGT617p13.2Q6P531 details
Probable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialEARS216p12.2Q5JPH6 details
Aminoadipate-semialdehyde synthaseAASS7q31.3A4D0W4 details
N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate synthetase ARIMKLA1p34.2Q8IXN7 details
Beta-citryl-glutamate synthase BRIMKLB12p13.31Q9ULI2 details
Putative aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic 2GOT1L18p11.23Q8NHS2 details
Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3CCBL21p22.2Q6YP21 details
Aspartate aminotransferaseGIG18Q2TU84 details
GGT7 proteinGGT720q11.22A0PJJ9 details
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 5GGT522q11.23P36269 details
Glutamyl aminopeptidaseENPEP4q25Q07075 details
Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit A, mitochondrialQRSL16q21Q9H0R6 details
Aspartyl aminopeptidaseDNPEP2q35Q9ULA0 details
Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit C, mitochondrialGATC12q24.31O43716 details
Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 2GGT2P36268 details
Putative gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 3GGT3PA6NGU5 details
Transporters
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Monocarboxylate transporter 1SLC16A11p12P53985 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit zeta-1GRIN19q34.3Q05586 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit 3BGRIN3B19p13.3O60391 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-1GRIN2A16p13.2Q12879 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-3GRIN2C17q25Q14957 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-2GRIN2B12p12Q13224 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-4GRIN2D19q13.1-qterO15399 details
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 1GRIK121q22.11P39086 details
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 2GRIK26q16.3-q21Q13002 details
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 3GRIK31p34-p33Q13003 details
Glutamate receptor 1GRIA15q33|5q31.1P42261 details
Cystine/glutamate transporterSLC7A114q28-q32Q9UPY5 details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 3SLC1A19p24P43005 details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 1SLC1A35p13P43003 details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 2SLC1A211p13-p12P43004 details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 5SLC1A71p32.3O00341 details
Excitatory amino acid transporter 4SLC1A619p13.12P48664 details
Monocarboxylate transporter 10SLC16A106q21-q22Q8TF71 details
Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1SLC25A2211p15.5Q9H936 details
Glutamate receptor 2GRIA24q32-q33P42262 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit 3AGRIN3A9q31.1Q8TCU5 details
Metal Bindings
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
AmidophosphoribosyltransferasePPAT4q12Q06203 details
CAD proteinCAD2p22-p21P27708 details
N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate synthetase ARIMKLA1p34.2Q8IXN7 details
Beta-citryl-glutamate synthase BRIMKLB12p13.31Q9ULI2 details
Glutamyl aminopeptidaseENPEP4q25Q07075 details
Aspartyl aminopeptidaseDNPEP2q35Q9ULA0 details
Receptors
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit zeta-1GRIN19q34.3Q05586 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit 3BGRIN3B19p13.3O60391 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-1GRIN2A16p13.2Q12879 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-3GRIN2C17q25Q14957 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-2GRIN2B12p12Q13224 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-4GRIN2D19q13.1-qterO15399 details
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 1GRIK121q22.11P39086 details
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 2GRIK26q16.3-q21Q13002 details
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 3GRIK31p34-p33Q13003 details
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1GRM16q24Q13255 details
Glutamate receptor 1GRIA15q33|5q31.1P42261 details
Glutamate receptor 2GRIA24q32-q33P42262 details
Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit 3AGRIN3A9q31.1Q8TCU5 details
Taste receptor type 1 member 3TAS1R31p36.33Q7RTX0 details
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8GRM87q31.3-q32.1O00222 details
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4GRM46p21.3Q14833 details
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7GRM73p26.1-p25.1Q14831 details
Glutamate receptor 3GRIA3Xq25-q26P42263 details
Glutamate receptor 4GRIA411q22P48058 details
Taste receptor type 1 member 1TAS1R11p36.31Q7RTX1 details
Transcriptional Factors
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunitGCLC6p12P48506 details
Concentrations Data
Cannabis CultivarStatusValueReferenceDetails
Alien DawgDetected and Quantified3.51 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
GabriolaDetected and Quantified3.54 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Island HoneyDetected and Quantified1.53 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
QuadraDetected and Quantified3.75 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Sensi StarDetected and Quantified1.51 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Tangerine DreamDetected and Quantified1.76 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000148
DrugBank IDDB00142
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012535
KNApSAcK IDC00001358
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00025
BioCyc IDGLT
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkL-Glutamic_Acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound33032
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16015
References
General References
  1. Turner CE, Elsohly MA, Boeren EG: Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A review of the natural constituents. J Nat Prod. 1980 Mar-Apr;43(2):169-234. doi: 10.1021/np50008a001. [PubMed:6991645 ]
  2. Camacho A, Massieu L: Role of glutamate transporters in the clearance and release of glutamate during ischemia and its relation to neuronal death. Arch Med Res. 2006 Jan;37(1):11-8. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2005.05.014. [PubMed:16314180 ]
  3. Lau A, Tymianski M: Glutamate receptors, neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Pflugers Arch. 2010 Jul;460(2):525-42. doi: 10.1007/s00424-010-0809-1. Epub 2010 Mar 14. [PubMed:20229265 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 119 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Irreversible conversion of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), derived either from proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This is a necessary step in the pathway interconnecting the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. The preferred substrate is glutamic gamma-semialdehyde, other substrates include succinic, glutaric and adipic semialdehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH4A1
Uniprot ID:
P30038
Molecular weight:
55117.24
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular weight:
56256.565
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway. Most likely involved in regulating the availability of precursors for N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins.
Gene Name:
GFPT2
Uniprot ID:
O94808
Molecular weight:
76929.885
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway. Most likely involved in regulating the availability of precursors for N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins.
Gene Name:
GFPT1
Uniprot ID:
Q06210
Molecular weight:
78805.81
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.
Gene Name:
ABAT
Uniprot ID:
P80404
Molecular weight:
56438.405
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.
Gene Name:
TAT
Uniprot ID:
P17735
Molecular weight:
50398.895
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GOT1
Uniprot ID:
P17174
Molecular weight:
46247.14
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids.
Gene Name:
GOT2
Uniprot ID:
P00505
Molecular weight:
47517.285
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
Gene Name:
BCAT1
Uniprot ID:
P54687
Molecular weight:
38644.77
General function:
Involved in amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PPAT
Uniprot ID:
Q06203
Molecular weight:
57398.52

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular weight:
53957.7
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors
Gene Name:
GRIN1
Uniprot ID:
Q05586
Molecular weight:
105371.9
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID:
O60391
Molecular weight:
112991.0
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits
Gene Name:
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q12879
Molecular weight:
165281.2
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN2C
Uniprot ID:
Q14957
Molecular weight:
134531.1
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID:
Q13224
Molecular weight:
166365.9
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN2D
Uniprot ID:
O15399
Molecular weight:
143750.7
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. May be involved in the transmission of light information from the retina to the hypothalamus
Gene Name:
GRIK1
Uniprot ID:
P39086
Molecular weight:
103979.7
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. May be involved in the transmission of light information from the retina to the hypothalamus. Modulates cell surface expression of NETO2
Gene Name:
GRIK2
Uniprot ID:
Q13002
Molecular weight:
102582.5
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for glutamate. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. The postsynaptic actions of Glu are mediated by a variety of receptors that are named according to their selective agonists. This receptor binds domoate > kainate >> L-glutamate = quisqualate >> AMPA = NMDA
Gene Name:
GRIK3
Uniprot ID:
Q13003
Molecular weight:
104036.1

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 119 proteins in total.