Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2020-03-18 23:21:24 UTC
Updated at2020-12-07 19:06:54 UTC
CannabisDB IDCDB006138
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Cannabis Compound Identification
Common NameSuccinic acid
DescriptionSuccinic acid is a four-carbon acyclic dicarboxylic acid. It is a white, odorless solid with a highly acidic taste. It is used as a flavoring agent, contributing a sour and astringent component characteristic of the umami taste (PMID:21932253 ). The anion, succinate, is a key component of the citric acid or TCA cycle and is capable of donating electrons to the electron transfer chain. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) plays an important role in mitochondrial function, being both part of the respiratory chain and the Krebs cycle. SDH, with a covalently attached FAD prosthetic group, is able to bind several different enzyme substrates (succinate and fumarate) and physiological regulators (oxaloacetate and ATP). Oxidizing succinate links SDH to the fast-cycling Krebs cycle portion where it participates in the breakdown of acetyl-CoA throughout the entire Krebs cycle. Succinate can readily be imported into the mitochondrial matrix by the n-butyl malonate- (or phenyl succinate-) sensitive dicarboxylate carrier in exchange with inorganic phosphate or another organic acid, e. g. malate (PMID:16143825 ). Human mutations in the four genes encoding the subunits of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase are associated with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, i.e.: Huntington’s disease (PMID:11803021 ). Moreover, succinic acid is found to be associated with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, which is an inborn error of metabolism. Additionally, succinic acid has been identified as an oncometabolite or an endogenous cancer-causing metabolite. Oncoetabolites are metabolic intermediates whose accumulation causes a metabolic and non-metabolic dysregulation leading to tumorigenesis. (PMID:23999438 , PMID:27117029 ). High levels of succinic acid can be found in tumors or biofluids surrounding tumors. Its oncogenic action appears due to its ability to inhibit prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes. In many tumours, oxygen availability becomes limited (hypoxia) very quickly due to rapid cell proliferation and limited blood vessel growth. The major regulator of the response to hypoxia is the HIF transcription factor (HIF-alpha). Under normal oxygen levels, protein levels of HIF-alpha are very low due to constant degradation, mediated by a series of post-translational modification events catalyzed by the prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes PHD1, 2 and 3, (also known as EglN2, 1 and 3) that hydroxylate HIF-alpha and lead to its degradation. All three of the PHD enzymes are inhibited by succinate. Succinic acid has been found to be associated with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, which is an inborn error of metabolism. Succinic acid is also a microbial metabolite. Indeed, urinary succinic acid is produced by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Citrobactes frundii, Enterococcus faecalis (PMID: 22292465 ). Succinic acid is also found in Actinobacillus, Anaerobiospirillum, Mannheimia, Corynebacterium and Basfia (PMID: 22292465 ; PMID: 18191255 ; PMID: 26360870 ). Succinic acid, or its anion succinate, is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical products to control acidity or as a counter ion. Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate. In 2004, succinic acid was identified by the Department of Energy of the United States of America as one of twelve molecules that can be produced from plant sugars through biological or chemical processes and that have a potential to subsequently be converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. In this regard, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has been identified as a source of succinic acid after several chemical and biological treatments (PMID:25682224 ), suggessting it could serve as a promising source of building blocks for green chemistry products.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acidChEBI
Acide butanedioiqueChEBI
Acide succiniqueChEBI
Acidum succinicumChEBI
Amber acidChEBI
AsuccinChEBI
BernsteinsaeureChEBI
ButandisaeureChEBI
Butanedionic acidChEBI
Dihydrofumaric acidChEBI
e363ChEBI
Ethylenesuccinic acidChEBI
HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOHChEBI
Spirit OF amberChEBI
1,2-EthanedicarboxylateGenerator
ButanedionateGenerator
DihydrofumarateGenerator
EthylenesuccinateGenerator
SuccinateGenerator
2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucoseHMDB
D-GlcNAcHMDB
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamineHMDB
N-AcetylchitosamineHMDB
N Acetyl D glucosamineHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxy D glucoseHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxyglucoseHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxyglucoseHMDB
AcetylglucosamineHMDB
1,4-ButanedioateHMDB
1,4-Butanedioic acidHMDB
KatasuccinHMDB
Wormwood acidHMDB
1,2 Ethanedicarboxylic acidHMDB
1,4 Butanedioic acidHMDB
Potassium succinateHMDB
Succinate, ammoniumHMDB
Butanedioic acidHMDB
Succinate, potassiumHMDB
Ammonium succinateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H6O4
Average Molecular Weight118.09
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight118.0266
IUPAC Namebutanedioic acid
Traditional Namesuccinic acid
CAS Registry Number110-15-6
SMILES
OC(=O)CCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)
InChI KeyKDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point185 - 188 °CNot Available
Boiling Point235 °CWikipedia
Water Solubility83.2 mg/mLNot Available
logP-0.59HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.53ALOGPS
logP-0.4ChemAxon
logS0.25ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.54 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
EI-MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-05di-9100000000-c629bea41d0d3d896425Spectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0920000000-f286e6204a4163b823baSpectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0900000000-bf336910bb37d7f78140Spectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-006t-9800000000-df5ff4e8457d2d4ef919Spectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00c1-3930000000-3cc18e719822b5af661aSpectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-004i-9000000000-93b4807ae6275a3e59d7Spectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0kos-9100000000-f1df0903a24c305e68ecSpectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0910000000-300c33b39fb991b5a73eSpectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0920000000-f286e6204a4163b823baSpectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0900000000-bf336910bb37d7f78140Spectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-006t-9800000000-df5ff4e8457d2d4ef919Spectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00c1-3930000000-3cc18e719822b5af661aSpectrum
GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0900000000-f838d863ee7c2b111f02Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSSuccinic acid, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xr-9300000000-f0644daf4fbb11fcc2dcSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSSuccinic acid, 2 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dj-9710000000-ff8325384b9eefd19106Spectrum
MS/MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9300000000-f9dc864d93a09d3074f9Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9300000000-76c151de384928b2256fSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-01b9-7900000000-51d2341c097f04827944Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-93b4807ae6275a3e59d7Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dj-0971010000-37d214dc7a8fdc26116bSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-249222ac742c1634cec9Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-6897d49472dba6a34a27Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0490000000-d138f8023125921b4b82Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-4ffdabe5bde527b66982Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-c20baa818f5ff5f678c1Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-7a49a18aa6fcb2540a12Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9955aeb0e5a9f88ae70eSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-7e1f195f111b4eafb4faSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00xr-9400000000-e50afc90e20cd420ba9bSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00xr-9600000000-43167f2549cbb5d5f7e8Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-4ffdabe5bde527b66982Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-7a8bfa543dc087bea06dSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-fdec6c7458176f3cbeb8Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9955aeb0e5a9f88ae70eSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0gb9-2900000000-9d959a53833b07094158Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0l6r-9600000000-c367e11e737714d41418Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-056r-9000000000-e65aa602a8293debec36Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-2900000000-e1f840494c9003279869Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-7900000000-1089efd4a3469bcf14f1Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0604-9000000000-0e0e60bb202ffb004894Spectrum
NMR
TypeDescriptionView
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
Pathways
Pathways
Protein Targets
Enzymes
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrialSDHC1q23.3Q99643 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrialSDHA5p15P31040 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrialSDHD11q23O14521 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrialSDHB1p36.1-p35P21912 details
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialALDH5A16p22P51649 details
Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomalPHYH10p13O14832 details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2P4HA25q31O15460 details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1P4HA110q21.3-q23.1P13674 details
Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenaseBBOX111p14.2O75936 details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1PLOD11p36.22Q02809 details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2PLOD23q24O00469 details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3PLOD37q22O60568 details
Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 1, mitochondrialOXCT15p13.1P55809 details
Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid coenzyme A transferase 2, mitochondrialOXCT21p34Q9BYC2 details
Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP/GDP-forming] subunit alpha, mitochondrialSUCLG12p11.2P53597 details
Succinyl-CoA ligase [GDP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrialSUCLG23p14.1Q96I99 details
Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrialSUCLA213q12.2-q13.3Q9P2R7 details
Aspartyl/asparaginyl beta-hydroxylaseASPH8q12.1Q12797 details
Mitochondrial dicarboxylate carrierSLC25A1017q25.3Q9UBX3 details
17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 6HSD17B612q13O14756 details
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrialTMLHEXq28Q9NVH6 details
Polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 proteinPKD2L110q24Q9P0L9 details
Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2ALKBH212q24.11Q6NS38 details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1LEPRE11p34.1Q32P28 details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2LEPREL13q28Q8IVL5 details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3LEPREL212q13Q8IVL6 details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-3P4HA311q13.4Q7Z4N8 details
Lysine-specific demethylase 2AKDM2A11q13.2Q9Y2K7 details
Lysine-specific demethylase 2BKDM2B12q24.31Q8NHM5 details
Egl nine homolog 1EGLN11q42.1Q9GZT9 details
Egl nine homolog 2EGLN219q13.2Q96KS0 details
Egl nine homolog 3EGLN314q13.1Q9H6Z9 details
Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylaseP4HTM3p21.3Q9NXG6 details
Lysine-specific demethylase 8KDM816p12.1Q8N371 details
Bifunctional lysine-specific demethylase and histidyl-hydroxylase MINAMINA3q11.2Q8IUF8 details
Bifunctional lysine-specific demethylase and histidyl-hydroxylase NO66NO6614q24.3Q9H6W3 details
Histone lysine demethylase PHF8PHF8Xp11.22Q9UPP1 details
Methylcytosine dioxygenase TET1TET110q21Q8NFU7 details
Methylcytosine dioxygenase TET2TET24q24Q6N021 details
Methylcytosine dioxygenase TET3TET32p13.1O43151 details
Transporters
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Solute carrier family 13 member 3SLC13A320q12-q13.1Q8WWT9 details
Solute carrier family 13 member 1SLC13A17q31-q32Q9BZW2 details
Solute carrier family 13 member 2SLC13A217p13.2Q13183 details
Metal Bindings
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrialSDHC1q23.3Q99643 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrialSDHD11q23O14521 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrialSDHB1p36.1-p35P21912 details
Phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, peroxisomalPHYH10p13O14832 details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-2P4HA25q31O15460 details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1P4HA110q21.3-q23.1P13674 details
Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenaseBBOX111p14.2O75936 details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1PLOD11p36.22Q02809 details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2PLOD23q24O00469 details
Procollagen-lysine,2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3PLOD37q22O60568 details
Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta, mitochondrialSUCLA213q12.2-q13.3Q9P2R7 details
Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, mitochondrialTMLHEXq28Q9NVH6 details
Polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 proteinPKD2L110q24Q9P0L9 details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1LEPRE11p34.1Q32P28 details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2LEPREL13q28Q8IVL5 details
Prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3LEPREL212q13Q8IVL6 details
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-3P4HA311q13.4Q7Z4N8 details
Lysine-specific demethylase 2AKDM2A11q13.2Q9Y2K7 details
Lysine-specific demethylase 2BKDM2B12q24.31Q8NHM5 details
Egl nine homolog 1EGLN11q42.1Q9GZT9 details
Egl nine homolog 2EGLN219q13.2Q96KS0 details
Egl nine homolog 3EGLN314q13.1Q9H6Z9 details
Transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylaseP4HTM3p21.3Q9NXG6 details
Lysine-specific demethylase 8KDM816p12.1Q8N371 details
Methylcytosine dioxygenase TET2TET24q24Q6N021 details
Methylcytosine dioxygenase TET3TET32p13.1O43151 details
Receptors
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Egl nine homolog 2EGLN219q13.2Q96KS0 details
Taste receptor type 1 member 3TAS1R31p36.33Q7RTX0 details
Taste receptor type 1 member 1TAS1R11p36.31Q7RTX1 details
Transcriptional Factors
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Aspartyl/asparaginyl beta-hydroxylaseASPH8q12.1Q12797 details
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha inhibitorHIF1AN10q24Q9NWT6 details
Lysine-specific demethylase 2AKDM2A11q13.2Q9Y2K7 details
Lysine-specific demethylase 2BKDM2B12q24.31Q8NHM5 details
Egl nine homolog 1EGLN11q42.1Q9GZT9 details
Egl nine homolog 2EGLN219q13.2Q96KS0 details
Egl nine homolog 3EGLN314q13.1Q9H6Z9 details
Lysine-specific demethylase 8KDM816p12.1Q8N371 details
Bifunctional lysine-specific demethylase and histidyl-hydroxylase NO66NO6614q24.3Q9H6W3 details
Histone lysine demethylase PHF8PHF8Xp11.22Q9UPP1 details
Methylcytosine dioxygenase TET1TET110q21Q8NFU7 details
Concentrations Data
Cannabis CultivarStatusValueReferenceDetails
Alien DawgDetected and Quantified0.285 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
GabriolaDetected and Quantified0.324 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Island HoneyDetected and Quantified0.321 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
QuadraDetected and Quantified0.246 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Sensi StarDetected and Quantified0.522 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Tangerine DreamDetected and Quantified0.245 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000254
DrugBank IDDB00139
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001931
KNApSAcK IDC00001205
Chemspider ID1078
KEGG Compound IDC00042
BioCyc IDSUC
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSuccinic_acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound1738118
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15741
References
General References
  1. Turner CE, Elsohly MA, Boeren EG: Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A review of the natural constituents. J Nat Prod. 1980 Mar-Apr;43(2):169-234. doi: 10.1021/np50008a001. [PubMed:6991645 ]
  2. Thakker C, Martinez I, San KY, Bennett GN: Succinate production in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol J. 2012 Feb;7(2):213-24. doi: 10.1002/biot.201100061. Epub 2011 Sep 20. [PubMed:21932253 ]
  3. Briere JJ, Favier J, El Ghouzzi V, Djouadi F, Benit P, Gimenez AP, Rustin P: Succinate dehydrogenase deficiency in human. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005 Oct;62(19-20):2317-24. doi: 10.1007/s00018-005-5237-6. [PubMed:16143825 ]
  4. Rustin P, Rotig A: Inborn errors of complex II--unusual human mitochondrial diseases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Jan 17;1553(1-2):117-22. doi: 10.1016/s0005-2728(01)00228-6. [PubMed:11803021 ]
  5. Yang M, Soga T, Pollard PJ: Oncometabolites: linking altered metabolism with cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep;123(9):3652-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI67228. Epub 2013 Sep 3. [PubMed:23999438 ]
  6. Sciacovelli M, Frezza C: Oncometabolites: Unconventional triggers of oncogenic signalling cascades. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Nov;100:175-181. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.04.025. Epub 2016 Apr 23. [PubMed:27117029 ]
  7. Gupta A, Dwivedi M, Mahdi AA, Khetrapal CL, Bhandari M: Broad identification of bacterial type in urinary tract infection using (1)h NMR spectroscopy. J Proteome Res. 2012 Mar 2;11(3):1844-54. doi: 10.1021/pr2010692. Epub 2012 Jan 31. [PubMed:22292465 ]
  8. Sauer M, Porro D, Mattanovich D, Branduardi P: Microbial production of organic acids: expanding the markets. Trends Biotechnol. 2008 Feb;26(2):100-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2007.11.006. Epub 2008 Jan 11. [PubMed:18191255 ]
  9. Becker J, Lange A, Fabarius J, Wittmann C: Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015 Dec;36:168-75. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2015.08.022. Epub 2015 Sep 8. [PubMed:26360870 ]
  10. Gunnarsson IB, Kuglarz M, Karakashev D, Angelidaki I: Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Bioresour Technol. 2015 Apr;182:58-66. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.126. Epub 2015 Feb 4. [PubMed:25682224 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 83 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHC
Uniprot ID:
Q99643
Molecular weight:
16650.185
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
SDHA
Uniprot ID:
P31040
Molecular weight:
72690.975
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular weight:
17042.82
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21912
Molecular weight:
31629.365
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name:
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID:
P51649
Molecular weight:
57214.23
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Converts phytanoyl-CoA to 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
PHYH
Uniprot ID:
O14832
Molecular weight:
38538.065
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA2
Uniprot ID:
O15460
Molecular weight:
60632.19
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA1
Uniprot ID:
P13674
Molecular weight:
60966.645
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name:
BBOX1
Uniprot ID:
O75936
Molecular weight:
44714.6
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Forms hydroxylysine residues in -Xaa-Lys-Gly- sequences in collagens. These hydroxylysines serve as sites of attachment for carbohydrate units and are essential for the stability of the intermolecular collagen cross-links.
Gene Name:
PLOD1
Uniprot ID:
Q02809
Molecular weight:
83549.55

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
High-affinity sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter that accepts a range of substrates with 4-5 carbon atoms. The stoichiometry is probably 3 Na(+) for 1 divalent succinate
Gene Name:
SLC13A3
Uniprot ID:
Q8WWT9
Molecular weight:
66840.4
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium/sulfate cotransporter that mediates sulfate reabsorption in the kidney
Gene Name:
SLC13A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZW2
Molecular weight:
66133.6
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Cotransport of sodium ions and dicarboxylates such as succinate and citrate
Gene Name:
SLC13A2
Uniprot ID:
Q13183
Molecular weight:
64409.5

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 83 proteins in total.