Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2020-04-17 18:38:59 UTC
Updated at2020-12-07 19:10:59 UTC
CannabisDB IDCDB004809
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Cannabis Compound Identification
Common NameFumaric acid
DescriptionFumaric acid, also known as E297 or fumarsaeure, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups. Fumaric acid is a weakly acidic compound (based on its pKa). Fumaric acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. Within humans, fumaric acid participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, fumaric acid can be biosynthesized from L-malic acid; which is catalyzed by the enzyme fumarate hydratase, mitochondrial. In addition, fumaric acid can be biosynthesized from succinic acid through the action of the enzyme mutant succinate dehydrogenase. A butenedioic acid in which the C=C double bond has E geometry. In humans, fumaric acid is involved in the metabolic disorder called the glutaminolysis and cancer pathway. Fumaric acid is an odorless and sour tasting compound. Outside of the human body, Fumaric acid is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as sweet cherries, star fruits, and milk (cow) and in a lower concentration in grape wines. Fumaric acid has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as cow milks, apples, fishes, garden rhubarbs, and common sages. This could make fumaric acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Fumaric acid is a potentially toxic compound. Fumaric acid, with regard to humans, has been found to be associated with several diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, eosinophilic esophagitis, and lung cancer; fumaric acid has also been linked to several inborn metabolic disorders including 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and fumarase deficiency. Fumaric acid is expected to be in Cannabis as all living plants are known to produce and metabolize it.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2E)-2-Butenedioic acidChEBI
(e)-2-Butenedioic acidChEBI
e297ChEBI
FumarsaeureChEBI
trans-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acidChEBI
trans-But-2-enedioic acidChEBI
trans-Butenedioic acidChEBI
(2E)-2-ButenedioateGenerator
(e)-2-ButenedioateGenerator
trans-1,2-EthylenedicarboxylateGenerator
trans-But-2-enedioateGenerator
trans-ButenedioateGenerator
FumarateGenerator
(2E)-But-2-enedioateHMDB
(2E)-But-2-enedioic acidHMDB
2-(e)-ButenedioateHMDB
2-(e)-Butenedioic acidHMDB
AllomaleateHMDB
Allomaleic acidHMDB
BoletateHMDB
Boletic acidHMDB
FC 33HMDB
LichenateHMDB
Lichenic acidHMDB
trans-2-ButenedioateHMDB
trans-2-Butenedioic acidHMDB
FuramagHMDB
MafusolHMDB
Fumaric acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H4O4
Average Molecular Weight116.07
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight116.011
IUPAC Name(2E)-but-2-enedioic acid
Traditional Namefumaric acid
CAS Registry Number110-17-8
SMILES
OC(=O)\C=C\C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H4O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)/b2-1+
InChI KeyVZCYOOQTPOCHFL-OWOJBTEDSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Biological role:

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point549 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility7 mg/mLNot Available
logP0.46HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.21ALOGPS
logP-0.041ChemAxon
logS-0.68ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.61 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability9.35 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
EI-MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0092-9000000000-003dd2d9303272b2ebeaSpectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-2940000000-e988056514d4ce4acc27Spectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-2960000000-a5ebaf2bbade922838ecSpectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-2950000000-32afa4d45e0e72b174b4Spectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0950000000-fe0f05c02c783d0b6f6bSpectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-006t-9530000000-0fc03f31f09dc8dbf4c6Spectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-3690000000-75089756992cdbe841e3Spectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-9100000000-2cf649749b42cc0c610cSpectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0007-0890000000-b1c35cd55deb81254f66Spectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-2940000000-e988056514d4ce4acc27Spectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-2960000000-a5ebaf2bbade922838ecSpectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-2950000000-32afa4d45e0e72b174b4Spectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0950000000-fe0f05c02c783d0b6f6bSpectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-006t-9530000000-0fc03f31f09dc8dbf4c6Spectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-3690000000-75089756992cdbe841e3Spectrum
GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0002-0940000000-177fdb9168659029ffaaSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSFumaric acid, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01ba-9200000000-52f88e04bac0ff8cdf17Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSFumaric acid, 2 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-8920000000-06da44f348d0fe0358b3Spectrum
MS/MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9100000000-57f13cd433a6fe4bf0b3Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0229-9600000000-cd9e2979d0bb1e2a62f2Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-03k9-8900000000-dc50dbf8a50872383d54Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6L) , Positivesplash10-0002-9100000000-b47e534bc82a6ed36e7cSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014j-9800000000-dbf34563376daeb2901fSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00xs-9200000000-113bf08cdc77707ed3adSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00fr-9000000000-f32d7ec65e8649bc2b0aSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-2900000000-408d53a9fff7acc8ca23Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-6900000000-f149e9e5a34e27dd4d4eSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0fxt-9000000000-cae5f71dc27daaf17d9eSpectrum
NMR
TypeDescriptionView
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
Pathways
Pathways
Protein Targets
Enzymes
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrialSDHC1q23.3Q99643 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrialSDHA5p15P31040 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrialSDHD11q23O14521 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrialSDHB1p36.1-p35P21912 details
Dopamine beta-hydroxylaseDBH9q34P09172 details
Adenylosuccinate lyaseADSL22q13.2P30566 details
Argininosuccinate lyaseASL7q11.21P04424 details
FumarylacetoacetaseFAH15q25.1P16930 details
Fumarate hydratase, mitochondrialFH1q42.1P07954 details
Fumarate hydrataseFH1q42.1B1ANK7 details
Acylpyruvase FAHD1, mitochondrialFAHD116p13.3Q6P587 details
TransportersNot Available
Metal Bindings
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrialSDHC1q23.3Q99643 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrialSDHD11q23O14521 details
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrialSDHB1p36.1-p35P21912 details
Dopamine beta-hydroxylaseDBH9q34P09172 details
FumarylacetoacetaseFAH15q25.1P16930 details
NAD-dependent malic enzyme, mitochondrialME218q21P23368 details
Acylpyruvase FAHD1, mitochondrialFAHD116p13.3Q6P587 details
ReceptorsNot Available
Transcriptional FactorsNot Available
Concentrations Data
Cannabis CultivarStatusValueReferenceDetails
Alien DawgDetected and Quantified0.191 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
GabriolaDetected and Quantified0.104 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Island HoneyDetected and Quantified0.18 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
QuadraDetected and Quantified0.06 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Sensi StarDetected and Quantified0.642 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Tangerine DreamDetected and Quantified0.122 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
HMDB IDHMDB0000134
DrugBank IDDB01677
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003291
KNApSAcK IDC00001183
Chemspider ID10197150
KEGG Compound IDC00122
BioCyc IDFUM
BiGG ID33938
Wikipedia LinkFumaric_Acid
METLIN ID3242
PubChem Compound444972
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18012
References
General ReferencesNot Available

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 18 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHC
Uniprot ID:
Q99643
Molecular weight:
16650.185
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
SDHA
Uniprot ID:
P31040
Molecular weight:
72690.975
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular weight:
17042.82
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21912
Molecular weight:
31629.365
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name:
DBH
Uniprot ID:
P09172
Molecular weight:
69064.45
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADSL
Uniprot ID:
P30566
Molecular weight:
54888.735
General function:
Involved in argininosuccinate lyase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ASL
Uniprot ID:
P04424
Molecular weight:
51657.505
General function:
Involved in fumarylacetoacetase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
FAH
Uniprot ID:
P16930
Molecular weight:
46373.97
General function:
Involved in fumarate hydratase activity
Specific function:
Also acts as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
FH
Uniprot ID:
P07954
Molecular weight:
54636.585
General function:
Involved in fumarate hydratase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
FH
Uniprot ID:
B1ANK7
Molecular weight:
54636.6

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 18 proteins in total.