Record Information
Version1.0
Created at2020-03-19 00:35:16 UTC
Updated at2020-11-18 16:35:09 UTC
CannabisDB IDCDB000002
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Cannabis Compound Identification
Common NameCannabidiol
DescriptionCannabidiol (CBD) is one of at least 85 active cannabinoids identified within the Cannabis plant. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the Cannabis plant's extract, that binds to a wide variety of physiological targets of the endocannabinoid system within the body. Although the exact medical implications are currently being investigated, CBD has shown promise as a therapeutic and pharmaceutical drug target as an analgesic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic and has shown neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, among other currently investigated uses (PMID: 26218440 ; PMID: 17828291 ). CBD's exact place within medical practice is still currently hotly debated. However as the body of evidence grows and legislation changes to reflect its wide-spread use, public and medical opinion have changed significantly with regards to its usefulness in a number of medical conditions ranging from anxiety to epilepsy. From a pharmacological perspective, Cannabis' (and CBD's) diverse receptor profile explains its potential application for such a wide variety of medical conditions. Cannabis contains more than 400 different chemical compounds, of which 61 are considered cannabinoids (PMID: 23408483 ). Cannabinoid receptors are utilized endogenously by the body through the endocannabinoid system, which includes a group of lipid proteins, enzymes, and receptors that are involved in many physiological processes. Through its modulation of neurotransmitter release, the endocannabinoid system regulates cognition, pain sensation, appetite, memory, sleep, immune function, and mood among many other bodily systems. These effects are largely mediated through two members of the G-protein coupled receptors family, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) (PMID: 26015168 ; PMID: 29533978 ). CB1 receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, with most receptors localized to the hippocampus and amygdala of the brain. Physiological effects of using cannabis make sense in the context of its receptor activity as the hippocampus and amygdala are primarily involved with regulation of memory, fear, and emotion. In contrast, CB2 receptors are mainly found peripherally in immune cells, lymphoid tissue, and peripheral nerve terminals (PMID: 27086601 ). Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are two types of cannabinoids found naturally in the resin of the marijuana plant, both of which interact with the cannabinoid receptors that are found throughout the body. Although THC and CBD have been the most studied cannabinoids, there are many others identified to date including cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), Cannabidivarin (CBDV), and Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) that can be found within the medical cannabis (PMID: 16199061 ). While both CBD and THC are used for medicinal purposes, they have different receptor activity, function, and physiological effects. If not provided in their activated form (such as through synthetic forms of THC like Dronabinol or Nabilone), THC and CBD are obtained through conversion from their precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), through decarboxylation reactions. This can be achieved through heating, smoking, vaporization, or baking of dried unfertilized female cannabis flowers. The primary psychoactive component of Cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), demonstrates its effects through weak partial agonist activity at Cannabinoid-1 (CB1R) and Cannabinoid-2 (CB2R) receptors. This activity results in the well-known effects of smoking cannabis such as increased appetite, reduced pain, and changes in emotional and cognitive processes. In contrast to THC's weak agonist activity, CBD has been shown to act as a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor, the most abundant G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) in the body (PMID: 26218440 ). Allosteric regulation is achieved through the modulation of receptor activity on a functionally distinct site from the agonist or antagonist binding site which is clinically significant as direct agonists (such as THC) are limited by their psychomimetic effects such as changes to mood, memory, and anxiety (PMID: 26218440 ). In addition to the well-known activity on CB1 and CB2 receptors, there is further evidence that CBD also activates serotonin Type 1A, 2A,3A (HT1A/2A/3A) serotonergic and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 receptors (TRPV1–2) vanilloid receptors, antagonizes alpha-1 adrenergic and µ-opioid receptors, inhibits synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and cellular uptake of anandamide, acts on mitochondria Ca2+ stores, blocks low-voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2+ channels, stimulates activity of the inhibitory glycine-receptor, and inhibits activity of fatty amide hydrolase (FAAH) (PMID: 26264914 ; PMID: 24281562 ). CBD is currently available in Canada within a 1:1 formulation with tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) (as the formulation known as "nabiximols"; as the brand name product Sativex). It is approved for use as adjunctive treatment for symptomatic relief of spasticity in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sativex was also given a conditional Notice of Compliance (NOC/c) for use as adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adult patients with multiple sclerosis and as adjunctive analgesic treatment for moderate to severe pain in adult patients with advanced cancer. In April 2018, a Food and Drug Administration advisory panel unanimously recommended approval of Epidiolex (cannabidiol oral solution) for the treatment of two rare forms of epilepsy - Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome, which are among the two most difficult types of epilepsy to treat. Epidiolex was granted Orphan Drug designation as well as Fast Track Approval from the FDA for further study in these hard to treat conditions. Notably, phase 3 clinical trials of Epidiolex have demonstrated clinically significant improvement in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. On June 25th, 2018, Epidiolex was approved by the FDA to be the first CBD-based product available on the US market.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-CannabidiolChEBI
(-)-CBDChEBI
(-)-trans-2-p-Mentha-1,8-dien-3-yl-5-pentylresorcinolChEBI
(-)-trans-CannabidiolChEBI
CannabidiolumChEBI
Delta(1(2))-trans-CannabidiolChEBI
Δ(1(2))-trans-cannabidiolGenerator
CBDChEMBL
CannabidiolMeSH
EpidiolexPhytoBank
delta1(2)-trans-CannabidiolPhytoBank
Δ1(2)-trans-CannabidiolPhytoBank
Chemical FormulaC21H30O2
Average Molecular Weight314.47
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight314.2246
IUPAC Name2-[(1R,6R)-3-methyl-6-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-2-en-1-yl]-5-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol
Traditional Namecannabidiol
CAS Registry Number3556-78-3
SMILES
CCCCCC1=CC(O)=C([C@@H]2C=C(C)CC[C@H]2C(C)=C)C(O)=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H30O2/c1-5-6-7-8-16-12-19(22)21(20(23)13-16)18-11-15(4)9-10-17(18)14(2)3/h11-13,17-18,22-23H,2,5-10H2,1,3-4H3/t17-,18+/m0/s1
InChI KeyQHMBSVQNZZTUGM-ZWKOTPCHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aromatic monoterpenoids. These are monoterpenoids containing at least one aromatic ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassMonoterpenoids
Direct ParentAromatic monoterpenoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • P-menthane monoterpenoid
  • Monocyclic monoterpenoid
  • Aromatic monoterpenoid
  • Resorcinol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Not Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
logPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP6.1ALOGPS
logP6.33ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity98.53 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.26 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSCannabidiol, 1 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSCannabidiol, 2 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
MS/MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-1249000000-71d752347245e1abbbf7Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0avi-4492000000-96dfcbc63aaf6e5d98eeSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9350000000-3aaacce5694ae8710a29Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0109000000-aaf2dd315ca5f4b5ecbfSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03fr-0829000000-4fc6459d1089253c0fd3Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00kr-1910000000-5b5d99e9c4d122cb642fSpectrum
NMRNot Available
Pathways
Pathways
Protein Targets
Enzymes
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1AHTR1A5q11.2-q13P08908 details
Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1FAAH1p35-p34O00519 details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3AHTR3A11q23.1P46098 details
Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 2FAAH2Xp11.21Q6GMR7 details
Transporters
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1TRPV117p13.2Q8NER1 details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3AHTR3A11q23.1P46098 details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1HCACNA1H16p13.3O95180 details
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2TRPV217p11.2Q9Y5S1 details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1GLRA15q32P23415 details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2GLRA2P23416 details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3GLRA34q33-q34O75311 details
Glycine receptor subunit betaGLRB4q31.3P48167 details
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1TRPA18q13O75762 details
Metal BindingsNot Available
Receptors
Protein NameGene NameLocusUniprot IDDetails
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1TRPV117p13.2Q8NER1 details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1AHTR1A5q11.2-q13P08908 details
Mu-type opioid receptorOPRM16q24-q25P35372 details
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2AHTR2A13q14-q21P28223 details
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptorADRA1A8p21.2P35348 details
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptorADRA1B5q33.3P35368 details
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptorADRA1D20p13P25100 details
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2TRPV217p11.2Q9Y5S1 details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1GLRA15q32P23415 details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2GLRA2P23416 details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3GLRA34q33-q34O75311 details
Glycine receptor subunit betaGLRB4q31.3P48167 details
Cannabinoid receptor 1CNR16q14-q15P21554 details
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1TRPA18q13O75762 details
Cannabinoid receptor 2CNR21p36.11P34972 details
Transcriptional FactorsNot Available
Concentrations Data
Cannabis CultivarStatusValueReferenceDetails
8-Ball KushDetected and Quantified0.531 mg/g dry wt details
9 Lb HammerDetected and Quantified0.468 mg/g dry wt details
97 SageDetected and Quantified0.755 mg/g dry wt details
AdonisDetected and Quantified0.399 mg/g dry wt details
Alien BluesDetected and Quantified1.1 +/- 0.3 mg/g dry wt details
Alien DawgDetected and Quantified0.0161 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Alien DawgDetected and Quantified0.103 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Alien DawgDetected and Quantified0.0168 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Alien Sour AppleDetected and Quantified0.274 mg/g dry wt details
Black BossDetected and Quantified0.593 mg/g dry wt details
Blue Cherry PieDetected and Quantified0.6 +/- 0.4 mg/g dry wt details
Blue DreamDetected and Quantified0.5 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Blue DreamDetected and Quantified0.417 mg/g dry wt details
Blue DreamDetected and Quantified0.479 mg/g dry wt details
Blue DreamDetected and Quantified0.625 mg/g dry wt details
Blue DreamDetected and Quantified0.856 mg/g dry wt details
Bob MarleyDetected and Quantified0.506 mg/g dry wt details
Bohdi TreeDetected and Quantified0.2 +/- 0 mg/g dry wt details
ChemdawgDetected and Quantified0.547 mg/g dry wt details
Chemdawg #4Detected and Quantified0.407 mg/g dry wt details
Chemdawg #4Detected and Quantified0.645 mg/g dry wt details
Cold Creek KushDetected and Quantified0.4 +/- 0 mg/g dry wt details
Cookies and CreamDetected and Quantified0.162 mg/g dry wt details
Cosmic LotusDetected and Quantified0.455 mg/g dry wt details
Crystal CookiesDetected and Quantified0.8 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Dairy QueenDetected and Quantified0.223 mg/g dry wt details
Dark Shadow HazeDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Double Royal KushDetected and Quantified0.5 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
FLODetected and Quantified0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
FLODetected and Quantified0.534 mg/g dry wt details
GabriolaDetected and Quantified0.00704 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Goji OGDetected and Quantified0.475 mg/g dry wt details
Golden CobraDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Golden SageDetected and Quantified0.473 mg/g dry wt details
Gorilla GlueDetected and Quantified0.615 mg/g dry wt details
Gorilla Glue #4Detected and Quantified0.314 mg/g dry wt details
Grandaddy PurpleDetected and Quantified0.6 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Grape StomperDetected and Quantified0.406 mg/g dry wt details
Grape StomperDetected and Quantified0.420 mg/g dry wt details
Green CrackDetected and Quantified1 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Green Crack 2015Detected and Quantified0.7 +/- 0 mg/g dry wt details
Grizzly KushDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Hash PlantDetected and Quantified0.421 mg/g dry wt details
Hash PlantDetected and Quantified0.476 mg/g dry wt details
HemlockDetected and Quantified0.484 mg/g dry wt details
Holy PowerDetected and Quantified0.9 +/- 0.2 mg/g dry wt details
Island HoneyDetected and Quantified0.00405 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
JabberwockyDetected and Quantified0.532 mg/g dry wt details
JabberwockyDetected and Quantified0.598 mg/g dry wt details
Jack HererDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
JuanitaDetected and Quantified47.1 +/- 8.1 mg/g dry wt details
Kandy KushDetected and Quantified0.362 mg/g dry wt details
Kush PuppyDetected and Quantified0.417 mg/g dry wt details
La ChocoDetected and Quantified0.447 mg/g dry wt details
LavendarDetected and Quantified0.4 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
LavendarDetected and Quantified0.8 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Lavendar Jones 2015Detected and Quantified0.6 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Lemon BalmDetected and Quantified0.504 mg/g dry wt details
Lemon GojiDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Lemon OGDetected and Quantified1.000 mg/g dry wt details
Lemon SherbetDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Lemon SkunkDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Lemon SkunkDetected and Quantified0.516 mg/g dry wt details
Liberty HazeDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
LohanDetected and Quantified0.564 mg/g dry wt details
Love LaceDetected and Quantified88.8 +/- 11 mg/g dry wt details
Lucky CharmsDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Maui HazeDetected and Quantified0.489 mg/g dry wt details
Moby DickDetected and Quantified1.060 mg/g dry wt details
Moonshine Ghost Trane HazeDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Nightmare CookieDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
OracleDetected and Quantified0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Orange SkunkDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Pineapple SkunkDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Pipe DreamDetected and Quantified0.463 mg/g dry wt details
Platinum BuffaloDetected and Quantified0 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Platinum DelightDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Platinum GorillaDetected and Quantified0.6 +/- 0 mg/g dry wt details
Purple EclipseDetected and Quantified0.449 mg/g dry wt details
Purple Fat PieDetected and Quantified0.7 +/- 0.2 mg/g dry wt details
QuadraDetected and Quantified0.0134 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Rocket FuelDetected and Quantified0.652 mg/g dry wt details
Rollex OGDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
RomulinDetected and Quantified0.5 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Rosetta StoneDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
RXDetected and Quantified0.6 +/- 0 mg/g dry wt details
SatoriDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Sensi StarDetected and Quantified0.0172 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Sensi StarDetected and Quantified0.0173 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Sensi StarDetected and Quantified0.0931 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Skunk HazeDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
SkywalkerDetected and Quantified0.4 +/- 0 mg/g dry wt details
Skywalker OGDetected and Quantified0.471 mg/g dry wt details
Sour WillieDetected and Quantified0.3 +/- 0 mg/g dry wt details
SpectrumDetected and Quantified85.600 mg/g dry wt details
Star BudDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Star KillerDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
Strawberry FieldsDetected and Quantified0.393 mg/g dry wt details
Strawberry FieldsDetected and Quantified0.400 mg/g dry wt details
Sunset SherbetDetected and Quantified0.382 mg/g dry wt details
Sunset SherbetDetected and Quantified0.462 mg/g dry wt details
Tangerine DreamDetected and Quantified0.00803 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Tangerine DreamDetected and Quantified0.00672 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Tangerine DreamDetected and Quantified0.0728 mg/g dry wt
    • Jiamin Zheng, Yil...
details
Tangerine DreamDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
The SauceDetected and Quantified0.100 mg/g dry wt details
ThunderstruckDetected and Quantified98.4 +/- 11.5 mg/g dry wt details
Twisted VelvetDetected and Quantified0.5 +/- 0.1 mg/g dry wt details
Venom OGDetected and Quantified0.211 mg/g dry wt details
Walker KushDetected and Quantified0.7 +/- 0.2 mg/g dry wt details
White WidowDetected and Quantified0.7 +/- 0 mg/g dry wt details
White WidowDetected and Quantified0.787 mg/g dry wt details
Wonder WomanDetected and Quantified1.100 mg/g dry wt details
HMDB IDNot Available
DrugBank IDDB09061
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00002641
Chemspider ID559095
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-7173
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCannabidiol
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound644019
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID69478
References
General References
  1. Laprairie RB, Bagher AM, Kelly ME, Denovan-Wright EM: Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;172(20):4790-805. doi: 10.1111/bph.13250. Epub 2015 Oct 13. [PubMed:26218440 ]
  2. Pertwee RG: The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan;153(2):199-215. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707442. Epub 2007 Sep 10. [PubMed:17828291 ]
  3. Sharma P, Murthy P, Bharath MM: Chemistry, metabolism, and toxicology of cannabis: clinical implications. Iran J Psychiatry. 2012 Fall;7(4):149-56. [PubMed:23408483 ]
  4. Baron EP: Comprehensive Review of Medicinal Marijuana, Cannabinoids, and Therapeutic Implications in Medicine and Headache: What a Long Strange Trip It's Been .... Headache. 2015 Jun;55(6):885-916. doi: 10.1111/head.12570. Epub 2015 May 25. [PubMed:26015168 ]
  5. Zou S, Kumar U: Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Mar 13;19(3). pii: ijms19030833. doi: 10.3390/ijms19030833. [PubMed:29533978 ]
  6. Kaur R, Ambwani SR, Singh S: Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2016;11(2):110-7. doi: 10.2174/1574884711666160418105339. [PubMed:27086601 ]
  7. Elsohly MA, Slade D: Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids. Life Sci. 2005 Dec 22;78(5):539-48. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.09.011. Epub 2005 Sep 30. [PubMed:16199061 ]
  8. Ibeas Bih C, Chen T, Nunn AV, Bazelot M, Dallas M, Whalley BJ: Molecular Targets of Cannabidiol in Neurological Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct;12(4):699-730. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0377-3. [PubMed:26264914 ]
  9. Zhornitsky S, Potvin S: Cannabidiol in humans-the quest for therapeutic targets. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2012 May 21;5(5):529-52. doi: 10.3390/ph5050529. [PubMed:24281562 ]
  10. Haresaku S, Hanioka T, Tsutsui A, Yamamoto M, Chou T, Gunjishima Y: Long-term effect of xylitol gum use on mutans streptococci in adults. Caries Res. 2007;41(3):198-203. doi: 10.1159/000099318. [PubMed:17426399 ]
  11. Grillaud M, Bandon D, Nancy J, Delbos Y, Vaysse F: [The polyols in pediatric dentistry: advantages of xylitol]. Arch Pediatr. 2005 Jul;12(7):1180-6. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2005.01.032. [PubMed:15964535 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 28 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular weight:
46106.3
General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of these molecules. Hydrolyzes polyunsaturated substrate anandamide preferentially as compared to monounsaturated substrates.
Gene Name:
FAAH
Uniprot ID:
O00519
Molecular weight:
63065.28
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular weight:
55279.8
General function:
Involved in carbon-nitrogen ligase activity, with glutamine as amido-N-donor
Specific function:
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of these molecules. Hydrolyzes monounsaturated substrate anandamide preferentially as compared to polyunsaturated substrates.
Gene Name:
FAAH2
Uniprot ID:
Q6GMR7
Molecular weight:
58303.115

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Receptor-activated non-selective calcium permeant cation channel involved in detection of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli. Seems to mediate proton influx and may be involved in intracellular acidosis in nociceptive neurons. May be involved in mediation of inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia. Sensitized by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system activated by receptor tyrosine kinases, which involves PKC isozymes and PCL
Gene Name:
TRPV1
Uniprot ID:
Q8NER1
Molecular weight:
94955.3
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular weight:
55279.8
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1H gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-voltage activated (LVA)" group and are strongly blocked by nickel and mibefradil. A particularity of this type of channels is an opening at quite negative potentials, and a voltage-dependent inactivation. T-type channels serve pacemaking functions in both central neurons and cardiac nodal cells and support calcium signaling in secretory cells and vascular smooth muscle. They may also be involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons which is important for information processing as well as in cell growth processes
Gene Name:
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID:
O95180
Molecular weight:
259160.2
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Calcium-permeable, non-selective cation channel with an outward rectification. Seems to be regulated, at least in part, by IGF-I, PDGF and neuropeptide head activator. May transduce physical stimuli in mast cells. Activated by temperatures higher than 52 degrees Celsius; is not activated by vanilloids and acidic pH
Gene Name:
TRPV2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5S1
Molecular weight:
85980.3
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular weight:
52623.4
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)
Gene Name:
GLRA2
Uniprot ID:
P23416
Molecular weight:
52001.6
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)
Gene Name:
GLRA3
Uniprot ID:
O75311
Molecular weight:
53799.8
General function:
Involved in extracellular-glycine-gated chloride channel activity
Specific function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)
Gene Name:
GLRB
Uniprot ID:
P48167
Molecular weight:
56121.6
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function. Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes. Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Not involved in menthol sensation. May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular weight:
127485.8

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 28 proteins in total.